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Excerpts from CECC Report: Freedom of Religion in China Not Up to International Standards

Saturday, October 15, 2011

Congressional-Executive Commission on  China | October 10, 2011
Below are excerpts from the “Freedom of Religion” section of the bipartisan Congressional-Executive Commission on China’s 2011 Annual Report on human rights and rule of law developments in China. Material from China Aid Association was used extensively in this section of the report.
Other sections of the CECC’s 351-page report mention cases that ChinaAid has championed, including “disappeared” Christian human rights lawyer Gao Zhisheng, blind activist Chen Guangcheng, now feared dead, and imprisoned Ughyur house church leader Alimujiang. The full report is available here: http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

FREEDOM OF RELIGION
Introduction
The Chinese government continued in the Commission’s 2011 reporting year to restrict Chinese citizens’ freedom of religion. China’s Constitution guarantees freedom of religious belief but limits protections for religious practice to ‘‘normal religious activities,’’ 1 a term applied in a manner that falls short of international human rights protections for freedom of religion.2 The government continued to recognize only five religions—Buddhism, Catholicism, Islam, Protestantism, and Taoism—and required groups belonging to these religions to register with the government. Registered groups received some legal protection for their religious activities but remained subject to ongoing state controls. Members of both unregistered groups and registered groups deemed to run afoul of state-set parameters for religion faced risk of harassment, detention, and other abuses. Some unregistered groups had space to practice their religions, but this limited tolerance did not amount to official recognition of these groups’ rights. Authorities also shut down the activities of some unregistered groups and maintained bans on other religious or spiritual communities, including Falun Gong.
Despite the Chinese government’s stated commitment to promoting internationally recognized human rights, it has not committed to promoting religious freedom in line with international human rights standards. The Chinese government’s 2009–2010 National Human Rights Action Plan, which was ‘‘framed . . . in pursuit of . . . the essentials of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,’’ affirmed the government’s existing framework of control over religion. 3 A September 2010 State Council Information Office white paper, which described China’s human rights progress in the previous year, addressed a range of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights, but made no reference to religion.4 The State Administration for Religious Affairs’ goals for 2011 called for further institutionalizing existing controls and mobilizing religious communities to promote doctrine that advances state-defined notions of ‘‘social harmony.’’ 5
The government continued to use law to control religious practice in China rather than protect the religious freedom of all Chinese citizens, accelerating efforts in the past year to revise or pass new legal measures. The State Administration for Religious Affairs (SARA) issued measures for the management of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in September 2010, effective in November 2010, that stipulate more extensive controls over these religious venues.6 [See Section V—Tibet for more information.] In January 2011, SARA announced it would issue new legal measures (banfa) and provisions (guiding) during the year on managing the ‘‘collective religious activities’’ of foreigners in China; on certifying teacher qualifications; on granting degrees at religious schools; and on managing religion-related foreign affairs.7 It also described plans to begin drafting measures for the management of religious schools and of Muslims’ pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj).8 The planned measures, like others passed in recent years, build on provisions in the Regulations on Religious Affairs (RRA), which took effect in March 2005.9
Recent legal measures have added more clarity to ambiguous provisions in the RRA but also have articulated more detailed levels of control. In addition, while such legal measures, along with the RRA, have provided limited protections for the activities of registered religious communities—such as establishing venues for worship and holding property—they exclude unregistered groups from these benefits, leaving their activities and possessions vulnerable to official abuses.10

Catholicism
During the Commission’s 2011 reporting year, the Chinese government and Communist Party continued to interfere in the religious activities of China’s estimated 4 to 12 million Catholics.25 The state-controlled church continued to deny Catholics in China the freedom to accept the authority of the Holy See to select bishops, and authorities continued to detain and harass some Catholics who practiced their faith outside of state-approved parameters. In addition, authorities forced some bishops to attend a December 2010 national conference of state-controlled church leadership, as well as the ordination ceremonies of two bishops ordained without Holy See approval.
INTERFERENCE WITH RELIGIOUS PERSONNEL AND ACTIVITIESThe government and Party continued to implement a restrictive framework of control over the selection and activities of Catholic religious personnel. Since the 1950s, the government and Party have denied Catholics in China the freedom to accept the authority of the Holy See to select bishops, and the state-controlled church asserts that it has the authority to approve the ordination of bishops in China.26 Officials have cited the principles of ‘‘independence’’ for Catholics in China and the ‘‘autonomous’’ selection and ordination of bishops as a basis for rejecting the authority of foreign entities (including the Holy See) over the state-controlled church,27 and China’s State Administration for Religious Affairs continued to call for the promotion of these principles in 2011.28 In some cases, the state-controlled church has allowed discreet Holy See approval of bishops who have also received state-controlled church approval, and this practice continued during this reporting year.29 Nevertheless, on November 20, 2010, state-controlled church authorities ordained Guo Jincai of Chengde diocese,30 Hebei province, the first ordination of a Catholic bishop in China without Holy See approval since November 2006. Authorities reportedly forced some bishops to attend the ordination, including Li Liangui of the Cangzhou diocese, Hebei.31 In July 2011, authorities in Shantou city, Guangdong province, took bishops Liang Jiansen, Liao Hongqing, Su Yongda, and Gan Junqiu into custody 32 and reportedly forced them to attend the ordination ceremony of Huang Bingzhang, another bishop ordained without Holy See approval.33
The government continued to interfere in the affairs of some unregistered bishops and their congregations this past year. For example, authorities in Gonghui town, Zhangbei county, Zhangjiakou city, Hebei province, reportedly restricted access to the town after the March 9, 2011, death of unregistered bishop Hao Jinli 34 in order to prevent large numbers of Catholics from traveling there to pay their respects to the bishop.35
Authorities also continued efforts to incorporate political themes into Catholic doctrine and education. In November 2010, the Hebei Provincial Ethnic and Religious Affairs Bureau appointed one of its own officials, Tang Zhaojun, to join the leadership of the Hebei Seminary and teach classes on ideology and politics.36 Students at the seminary demonstrated soon thereafter,37 and the seminary appointed new leadership in January 2011.38 Honorary chairman Liu Bainian 39 of both the Catholic Patriotic Association (CPA)—which manages the state-controlled church on behalf of the government and Party 40—and the Bishops Conference of the Catholic Church in China (BCCCC)—which approves the selection of bishops in China 41—said in a March 2011 interview that ‘‘[w]hat the church needs is talent who love the country and love religion: politically, they should respect the Constitution, respect the law, and fervently love the socialist motherland.’’ 42
HARASSMENT AND DETENTIONThe government and Party continued to harass and detain unregistered Catholics who practiced their faith outside of state-approved parameters. At least 40 unregistered Chinese bishops are in detention, home confinement, or surveillance; are in hiding; or have disappeared under suspicious circumstances.43 Some have been missing for years, such as unregistered (or ‘‘underground’’) bishops Su Zhimin and Shi Enxiang, whom public security officials took into custody in 1996 and 2001, respectively.44 Authorities targeted other Catholics more recently. For example, on April 8, 2011, public security officials in Beijing municipality reportedly took into custody Beijing-based unregistered priest Chen Hailong in connection with his religious activities.45 Authorities reportedly took him to a guest house in Yanqing county, Beijing, and then took him to an unknown location on April 9.46 Authorities reportedly questioned Chen about the location of unregistered bishop Zhao Kexun and then released Chen on July 23, 2011.47
BISHOPS FORCED TO ATTEND NATIONAL CATHOLIC CONFERENCEFrom December 7 to 9, 2010, the state-controlled Catholic church convened the eighth National Conference of Chinese Catholic Representatives (NCCCR) in Beijing to choose new state-controlled church leaders. Throughout the NCCCR, government and Party leaders emphasized that Catholics in China should practice their religion in conformity with government and Party policies. For example, Jia Qinglin—a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party Central Committee 48—described to CPA and BCCCC representatives the Party’s efforts to prevent Catholics in China from practicing their faith independent of Party policies: ‘‘Religious work is an important component of the work of the Party and the country . . . . [The Party Central Committee] continuously consolidates and develops a patriotic united front between the Party and the religious community.’’ 49
During the time surrounding the NCCCR, the government denied some bishops the choice to abstain from religious activities that contravene the Holy See’s policies. Both the Holy See and some delegates at the NCCCR reportedly alleged that authorities forced some bishops to take part in the NCCCR,50 following reports that authorities instructed local United Front Work Departments and Ethnic and Religious Affairs Bureaus throughout China to ensure that enough delegates attend.51 For example, on December 6,2010, public security officials in Hengshui city, Hebei province, reportedly used force to remove registered bishop Feng Xinmao from the Jing county cathedral in Hengshui to take him to the NCCCR.52 Shortly before the NCCCR, public security authorities attempted to force bishop Li Liangui to participate, but they could not locate him,53 and they reportedly told members of his diocese, the Cangzhou diocese, that they would attempt to find him.54 After Li returned to his diocese on December 17, 2010, authorities reportedly took him to attend a political study session and ordered him to write a letter of apology for his absence.55 As of January 20, 2011, he reportedly was back at the Cangzhou diocese.56
Protestantism
During the Commission’s 2011 reporting year, the Chinese government and Communist Party continued to implement a restrictive framework for control of the doctrine and practices of China’s estimated 20 million or more registered Protestants,103 who worship in state-sanctioned churches. Unregistered Protestants worship outside state-sanctioned churches; reliable data on the number of unregistered Protestants is difficult to obtain, and estimates 70 million unregistered Protestants,104 while other estimates range from approximately 45 million to over 100 million.105 The government and Party continued to harass, detain, and imprison some members of both the registered and unregistered communities who ran afoul of government or Party policy. In addition, cases of harassment and detention since late 2010 suggest that authorities’ sensitivities intensified toward Protestants who assemble into large groups or across congregations, or who have contact with foreign individuals or organizations.
GOVERNMENT AND PARTY SEEK TO CONTROL PROTESTANT DOCTRINE AND PRACTICESThis past year, the government, Party, and state-controlled Protestant church continued to dictate the terms by which Protestants in China must interpret doctrine and theology. China’s Constitution guarantees ‘‘freedom of religious belief,’’ 106 but the government and Party continued to promote ‘‘theological reconstruction,’’ the process by which the state-controlled church attempts to eliminate elements of the Christian faith that do not conform to Party goals and ideology.107 The Three-Self Patriotic Movement (TSPM) and the China Christian Council (CCC) are the official organizations that manage registered Protestants on behalf of the government and Party,108 and TSPM Secretary General Xu Xiaohong linked Protestant doctrine to political goals when he reportedly said in September 2010 that ‘‘[t]here are many Bible teachings that are complementary to the government policy of social harmony. These ethics, if carried out, are a great help to society and, in a way, help consolidate the regime.’’ 109 Officials also continued to link theological reconstruction to economic development 110 and describe it as a ‘‘requirement’’ for the ‘‘mutual adaptation’’ of Protestantism and socialism.111
HARASSMENT, DETENTION, AND INTERFERENCE WITH PLACES OF WORSHIPThe government and Party continued to harass, detain, imprison, and interfere with the religious activities of some Protestants who worship outside of state-approved parameters. In particular, cases since late 2010 suggest that authorities’ sensitivities intensified toward members of unregistered Protestant congregations (‘‘house churches’’) who assembled into large groups or across congregations, or who had contact with foreign individuals or organizations. The Commission has not observed official statements that acknowledge a concerted effort to target house church congregations during this period, but a January 2011 document from China’s State Administration for Religious Affairs (SARA) that outlines SARA’s policies in 2011 called on authorities to ‘‘guide’’ Protestants who ‘‘participate in activities at unauthorized gathering places’’ (house churches) to worship in state-controlled churches.112 In addition, two April 2011 editorials from the Global Times warned unregistered Protestant congregations not to overstep state-approved parameters in their religious activities.113 The Global Times operates under the People’s Daily,114 the official news media of the Communist Party. During this period, authorities throughout China stopped house church gatherings; took participants into custody; placed unregistered Protestants under ‘‘soft detention’’ (ruanjin), a form of unlawful home confinement; and blocked access to sites of worship. Such measures violate provisions in international law that protect religious practice and peaceful assembly, such as Articles 18 and 20 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 115 and Articles 18 and 21 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.116 China’s Regulations on Religious Affairs excludes unregistered religious groups from the limited state protections that it offers,117 leaving members of house church congregations at risk of harassment, detention, and imprisonment by authorities.
Selected cases follow: 118
• Beginning on April 9, 2011, public security authorities in Beijing repeatedly took into custody and placed under ‘‘soft detention’’ members and leaders of the unregistered Beijing Shouwang Church as they attempted to worship outdoors in Beijing.119 Shouwang reportedly has approximately 1,000 members, one of the largest unregistered congregations in Beijing. 120 Shouwang began to organize outdoor worship gatherings every Sunday from April 10 onward after authorities reportedly pressured its landlords to deny it access to indoor sites where it had previously met or planned to meet.121 In one instance, officials reportedly took into custody over 160 church members.122 In total, officials reportedly placed approximately 500 church members and leaders under ‘‘soft detention,’’ 123 including pastors Jin Tianming, Yuan Ling, Zhang Xiaofeng, and Li Xiaobai, and lay leaders Sun Yi, You Guanhui, and Liu Guan.124 As of April 29, all seven remained confined to their homes.125
• On May 10, 2011, public security officials in Zhengzhou city, Henan province, interrupted a Bible study gathering of members of the Chinese House Church Alliance (CHCA)—which associates with unregistered Protestant congregations in multiple provinces—and took into custody 49 people.126 The 49 included 3 persons who were previously detained in April after having contact with CHCA leaders,127 as well as Korean pastor Jin Yongzhe (pinyin name), and Jin’s wife Li Sha.128 All but Jinand Li were released by the following day; 129 Jin and Li were released on May 15.130 Since late 2010, authorities in various locations have harassed and detained CHCA leadership, including president Zhang Mingxuan 131 and vice president Shi Enhao.132 On June 21, public security officials in Suqian city, Jiangsu province, reportedly detained Shi on suspicion of ‘‘using superstition to undermine the implementation of the law,’’ 133 and authorities later ordered him to serve two years of reeducation through labor.134
• In December 2010, authorities harassed, detained, or prevented from leaving the country approximately 200 Protestants who received invitations to attend the Third Lausanne Congress on World Evangelization, held in South Africa,135 despite the fact that a January 2011 SARA report lists ‘‘proactively launching foreign religious exchanges’’ as an achievement of SARA in 2010.136 Authorities reportedly warned members of unregistered church communities not to attend because their attendance would ‘‘endanger state security,’’ 137 an explanation that, according to Fan Yafeng, anecdotal evidence suggests has been broadly applied to rights defenders and other citizens.138 Fan is a prominent legal scholar, religious freedom advocate, and house church leader.139 [See Section II—Freedom of Residence and Movement for more information.]
• Between October and December 2010, authorities in Beijing took Fan Yafeng into custody at least six times in connection with his legal advocacy for unregistered Protestant communities 140 and his contact with foreign media.141 Since November 1, 2010, public security officials have prevented him from leaving his home.142
Other members of unregistered Protestant communities remain in detention or in prison for practicing their religion. For example, Uyghur Protestant Alimjan Yimit remains in the Xinjiang No. 3 Prison in Urumqi city, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region,143 after the Kashgar Intermediate People’s Court sentenced him to 15 years in prison in 2009 for ‘‘leaking state secrets.’’ 144 He previously told a U.S. citizen about an interview between himself and local authorities about his own preaching activities; the interview’s contents were later classified as a state secret.145
In a May 2011 letter submitted to the National People’s Congress (NPC),146 22 house church leaders and members called on the NPC to investigate and resolve the Beijing Shouwang Church’s conflict with authorities, examine the constitutionality of the Regulations on Religious Affairs, and pass a law that protects freedom of religious belief.147 Drawing on Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the letter argued that freedom of religion includes assembly, association, expression, education, and evangelization.148
Authorities also continued to interfere in the religious practices and worship sites of registered Protestants. For example, in December 2010, public security officials in Bengbu city, Anhui province, pressured three congregations—two unregistered and one registered—to cancel a Christmas service that all three had planned to hold together.149 On November 19, 2010, the registered Chengnan Church, in Tinghu district, Yancheng city, Jiangsu province, was demolished 150 after government officials and real estate developers had unsuccessfully sought to purchase the church’s property to build commercial residential buildings.151
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Notes to Section II—Freedom of Religion1 PRC Constitution, issued 4 December 82, amended 12 April 88, 29 March 93, 15 March 99, 14 March 04, art. 36.
2 For protections in international law, see, e.g., the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), adopted and proclaimed by UN General Assembly resolution 217A (III) of 10 December 48, art. 18; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), adopted by UN General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 66, entry into force 23 March 76, art. 18; International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), adopted by UN General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 66, entry into force 3 January 76, art. 13(3) (requiring States Parties to ‘‘ensure the religious and moral education of . . . children in conformity with [the parents’] own convictions’’); Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), adopted and opened for signature, ratification, and accession by UN General Assembly resolution
44/25 of 20 November 89, entry into force 2 September 90, art. 14; Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, adopted by UN General Assembly resolution 36/55 of 25 November 81. See General Comment No. 22 to Article 18 of the ICCPR for an official interpretation of freedom of religion as articulated in the ICCPR. UN Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 22: The Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religion (Art. 18), CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.4, 30 July 93, para. 1. China is a party to the ICESCR and the CRC and a signatory to the ICCPR. The Chinese government has committed itself to ratifying, and thus bringing its laws into conformity with, the ICCPR and reaffirmed its commitment on April 13, 2006, in its application for membership in the UN Human Rights Council. China’s top leaders have also stated on other occasions that they
are preparing for ratification of the ICCPR, including in March 18, 2008, press conference remarks by Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao; in a September 6, 2005, statement by Politburo member and State Councilor Luo Gan at the 22nd World Congress on Law; in statements by Wen Jiabao during his May 2005 Europe tour; and in a January 27, 2004, speech by Chinese President Hu Jintao before the French National Assembly. China affirmed this commitment during the Universal Periodic Review of China’s human rights record before the UN Human Rights Council. UN GAOR, Hum Rts. Coun., 11th Sess., Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review—China, A/HRC/11/25, 3 March 09, para. 114(1). In addition, China’s National Human Rights Action Plan affirms the principles in the ICCPR. State Council Information Office, ‘‘National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009–2010),’’ reprinted in Xinhua, 13 April 09, Introduction. The ‘‘White Paper on Progress in China’s Human Rights in 2009,’’ issued in 2010, also states that the government is ‘‘vigorously creating conditions’’ for ratifying the ICCPR. State Council Information Office, ‘‘White Paper on Progress in China’s Human Rights in 2009’’ [2009 nian zhongguo renquan shiye de jinzhan], reprinted in Xinhua, 26 September 10, sec. VII.
3 State Council Information Office, ‘‘National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009–2010),’’ reprinted in Xinhua, 13 April 09, Introduction, sec. II(4).
4 State Council Information Office, ‘‘White Paper on Progress in China’s Human Rights in 2009’’ [2009 nian zhongguo renquan shiye de jinzhan], reprinted in Xinhua, 26 September 10.
5 State Administration for Religious Affairs, ‘‘Main Points of State Administration for Religious Affairs’ 2011 Work’’ [Guojia zongjiao shiwu ju 2011 nian gongzuo yaodian], 24 January 11. See analysis in ‘‘State Administration for Religious Affairs Outlines Restrictive Religious Practices for 2011,’’ Congressional-Executive Commission on China, 12 April 11.
6 Measures on the Management of Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries [Zangchuan fojiao simiao guanli banfa], issued 30 September 10, effective 1 November 10. The measures come as most Tibetan autonomous prefectures in China have drafted or implemented their own legal measures to regulate ‘‘Tibetan Buddhist Affairs.’’ See Section V—Tibet for additional information.
7 State Administration for Religious Affairs, ‘‘Our Country To Further Draft and Revise Accompanying Measures to ‘Regulations on Religious Affairs’ ’’ [Woguo jiang jinyibu zhiding he xiuding ‘‘zongjiao shiwu tiaoli’’ peitao banfa], 10 January 11.
8 Ibid.
9 Regulations on Religious Affairs [Zongjiao shiwu tiaoli], issued 30 November 04, effective 1 March 05.
10 For information and analysis on previous legal measures, see CECC, 2008 Annual Report, 31 October 08, 73–75; ‘‘New Measures Regulate Financial Affairs of Venues for Religious Activities,’’ CECC China Human Rights and Rule of Law Update, No. 5, 4 June 10, 3; and ‘‘Tibetan Buddhist Affairs Regulations Taking Effect in Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures,’’ Congressional-Executive Commission on China, 10 March 11. The Regulations on Religious Affairs condition protections on religious groups registering as organizations and registering their venues with the government. Regulations on Religious Affairs [Zongjiao shiwu tiaoli], issued 30 November 04, effective 1 March 05, arts. 6, 12–15.
25 Estimates of the size of China’s Catholic community vary widely, and there are large discrepancies between Chinese government estimates and international media estimates. For example, senior Communist Party leader Jia Qinglin has estimated the Catholic population at 4 million, although it is unclear whether or not his estimate applies to both registered and unregistered Catholics. Bao Daozu, ‘‘Religion ‘Can Promote Harmony,’ ’’ China Daily, 4 March 08. International media estimates range from 8 to over 12 million. See, e.g., Ambrose Leung, ‘‘Tsang Had Audience With Pope but Cancelled,’’ South China Morning Post, 26 March 10; ‘‘Cardinal for China,’’ Wall Street Journal, 16 April 09; James Pomfret, ‘‘New Hong Kong Bishop Pressures China on Religious Freedom,’’ Reuters, 17 April 09.
26 According to the Charter of the Bishops’ Conference of the Catholic Church in China
(BCCCC), the BCCCC has the authority to approve the ordination of bishops in China. Bishops’ Conference of the Catholic Church in China, Charter of the Bishops’ Conference of the Catholic Church in China [Zhongguo tianzhujiao zhujiaotuan zhangcheng], adopted 9 July 04, art. 6(2).
27 See, e.g., ‘‘State Administration for Religious Affairs Issues Statement Regarding Vatican’s Criticism of National Conference of Chinese Catholic Representatives’’ [Guojia zongjiao ju jiu fandigang zhize zhongguo tianzhujiao daibiao huiyi fabiao tanhua], Xinhua, 22 December 10.
28 State Administration for Religious Affairs, ‘‘Main Points of State Administration for Religious Affairs’ 2011 Work’’ [Guojia zongjiao shiwu ju 2011 nian gongzuo yaodian], 24 January 11.
29 See, e.g., ‘‘China Appoints New Bishop With Vatican Approval Following Souring of Relations Last Year,’’ Associated Press, 11 April 11; Jian Mei, ‘‘New Bishop of Yanzhou Ordained With Holy See Approval,’’ AsiaNews, 20 May 11.
30 The Chinese government established the Chengde diocese in May 2010, and the Holy See does not recognize it. See, e.g., Zhen Yuan, ‘‘Chengde: Illicit Episcopal Ordination, the First in Four Years,’’ AsiaNews, 19 November 10.
31 Bernardo Cervellera, ‘‘The Return of the Cultural Revolution: Chinese Bishops Imprisoned or Hunted Like Criminals,’’ AsiaNews, 6 December 10; W. Zhicheng and Z. Yuan, ‘‘Chinese Bishops Deported To Attend Patriotic Assembly,’’ AsiaNews, 7 December 10; Zhen Yuan, ‘‘Chengde: Illicit Episcopal Ordination, the First in Four Years,’’ AsiaNews, 19 November 10.
32 Jian Mei and W. Zhicheng, ‘‘Officials Kidnap Bishops of Guangdong To Force Them To Take Part in Illicit Shantou Ordination,’’ AsiaNews, 11 July 11.
33 Jian Mei, ‘‘Eight Bishops in Communion With the Pope Forced To Take Part in Illegitimate Ordination in Shantou,’’ AsiaNews, 14 July 11; ‘‘Bishops Attend Unapproved Ordination,’’ Union of Catholic Asian News, 14 July 11.
34 ‘‘ ‘Underground’ Xiwanzi Bishop Dies,’’ Union of Catholic Asian News, 10 March 11; ‘‘Police Isolate Hebei Village After Death of an Underground Bishop,’’ AsiaNews, 12 March 11.
35 ‘‘Police Isolate Hebei Village After Death of an Underground Bishop,’’ AsiaNews, 12 March 11. Yao Liang, the auxiliary bishop of the same diocese, died in 2009, and authorities implemented restrictions on his funeral. For more information, see CECC, 2010 Annual Report, 10 October 10, 102.
36 Ambrose Leung, ‘‘Catholic Seminarians Mount Rare Protest,’’ South China Morning Post, 3 December 10; ‘‘China’s Hebei Seminary Strikes, Demands Revocation of Political Appointment’’ [Zhongguo hebei xiuyuan ba ke yaoqiu chehui zhengzhi renming], CathNews China, 24 November 10; Hebei Seminary, ‘‘Provincial Department Leaders Come to Our Seminary To Express Greetings’’ [Sheng ting lingdao lai wo yuan weiwen], 11 November 10.
37 Ambrose Leung, ‘‘Catholic Seminarians Mount Rare Protest,’’ South China Morning Post, 3 December 10; ‘‘China’s Hebei Seminary Strikes, Demands Revocation of Political Appointment’’ [Zhongguo hebei xiuyuan ba ke yaoqiu chehui zhengzhi renming], CathNews China, 24 November 10.
38 ‘‘Shijiazhuang: Hebei Catholic Seminary Board of Directors Convenes Meeting’’
[Shijiazhuang: hebei tianzhujiao shenzhexue yuan dongshi hui zhaokai huiyi], Faith Press, 14 January 11; Zhen Yuan, ‘‘Hebei Seminarians Welcome New Rector,’’ AsiaNews, 15 January 11.
39 Liu Bainian was previously the vice chairman of the Catholic Patriotic Association (CPA). At the Eighth National Conference of Chinese Catholic Representatives, he was chosen to be honorary chairman of the CPA and Bishops’ Conference of the Catholic Church in China. See, e.g., ‘‘Exclusive Interview With Catholic Patriotic Association and Bishops’ Conference of the Catholic Church in China Honorary Chairman Liu Bainian’’ [Zhuanfang zhongguo tianzhujiao ‘‘yi hui yi tuan’’ mingyu zhuxi liu bainian], China Religion, 30 March 11.
40 The charter of the Catholic Patriotic Association lists among its duties: ‘‘Under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the People’s government, to fervently love socialism and the motherland; to unite all the country’s Catholic clergy and church members; to respect the country’s constitution, laws, regulations, and policies; to exhibit Catholicism’s own strengths; to contribute strength to comprehensively establishing a prosperous society; to be the light and the salt, the glory of God.’’ Catholic Patriotic Association, Charter of the Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association [Zhongguo tianzhujiao aiguo hui zhangcheng], adopted 9 July 04, art. 6.
41 The charter of the Bishops’ Conference of the Catholic Church in China (BCCCC) does not explicitly formalize the BCCCC’s relationship with the government or the Party. It does, however, formalize its relationship with the CPA. Bishops’ Conference of the Catholic Church in China, Charter of the Bishops’ Conference of the Catholic Church in China [Zhongguo tianzhujiao zhujiaotuan zhangcheng], adopted 9 July 04, art. 1.
42 ‘‘Exclusive Interview With Catholic Patriotic Association and Bishops’ Conference of the Catholic Church in China Honorary Chairman Liu Bainian’’ [Zhuanfang zhongguo tianzhujiao ‘‘yi hui yi tuan’’ mingyu zhuxi liu bainian], China Religion, 30 March 11.
43 U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, ‘‘2010 Annual Report,’’ May 2010, 110.
44 Bernardo Cervellera, ‘‘In Hebei, Underground Bishop Joins Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association,’’ AsiaNews, 29 October 09.
45 ‘‘Priests Not Spared in China’s Crackdown,’’ Union of Catholic Asian News, 13 April 11; ‘‘Three Priests in Hebei Province Detained or Whereabouts Unknown’’ [Hebei sheng san ming shenfu bei juliu huo xialuo bu ming], CathNews China, 13 April 11.
46 Ibid.
47 ‘‘Officials Free ‘Underground’ Priest,’’ Union of Catholic Asian News, 4 August 11.
48 Jia is also head of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). The CPPCC Web site lists among the functions of the CPPCC ‘‘political consultation,’’ ‘‘democratic oversight,’’ and ‘‘participation in the deliberation and administration of state affairs,’’ and it contains representatives from religious communities. Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, ‘‘The Main Functions of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference’’ [Zhongguo zhengxie de zhuyao zhineng], 29 June 10.
49 ‘‘Jia Qinglin Meets With Representatives From Eighth National Conference of Chinese Catholic Representatives’’ [Jia qinglin huijian zhongguo tianzhu jiao di ba ci daibiao huiyi daibiao], Xinhua, 9 December 10.
50 See, e.g., ‘‘Chinese Catholics Mull Post-Congress Future,’’ Union of Catholic Asian News, 17 December 10. In a communique from the Press Office of the Holy See, the Holy See alleged that ‘‘many Bishops and priests were forced to take part in the [National Conference of Chinese Catholic Representatives].’’ The full text of the communique is reprinted in ‘‘Vatican ‘Sorrow’ Over China Catholic Congress,’’ Union of Catholic Asian News, 17 December 10.
51 ‘‘Three Days in China’s Catholic Congress,’’ Union of Catholic Asian News, 16 December 10.
52 Keith B. Richburg, ‘‘China Defies Vatican on Bishop Conclave,’’ Washington Post, 8 December 10.
53 Bernardo Cervellera, ‘‘The Return of the Cultural Revolution: Chinese Bishops Imprisoned or Hunted Like Criminals,’’ AsiaNews, 6 December 10; W. Zhicheng and Z. Yuan, ‘‘Chinese Bishops Deported To Attend Patriotic Assembly,’’ AsiaNews, 7 December 10.
54 Ibid.
55 ‘‘Bishop Voted Chinese Catholic of 2010,’’ Union of Catholic Asian News, 20 January 11.
56 Ibid.
103 The 2010 Blue Book of Religions, published by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, estimates that there are over 23 million Protestants in China and 55,000 sites of worship, including approximately 24,000 churches and 31,000 ‘‘gathering sites’’ (juhui dian). ‘‘ ‘Annual Report on China’s Religiions (2010),’ Report on China’s Census of Protestants’’ [“Zhongguo zongjiao  baogao 2010’’ zhongguo jidu jiao ruhu wenjuan diaocha baogao], in Blue Book of Religions: Annual Report on China’s Religions (2010), Institute of World Religions, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (August 2010), article reprinted in State Administration for Religious Affairs, 18 August
10; Li Guang, ‘‘Religion White Paper Announces Over 55,000 Churches’’ [Zongjiao baipishu gongbu you 55000 yu tangdian], Phoenix Weekly, 15 October 10, 50. Estimates from official Chinese sources often do not include Protestants who worship outside of the state-controlled church, and the 23 million figure likely does not reflect the size of China’s unregistered Protestant community. In an interview with the BBC, Wang Zuo’an, director of China’s State Administration for Religious Affairs, reportedly told a journalist that at least 20 million Protestants worship in China’s state-controlled church. Christopher Landau, ‘‘China Invests in Confident Christians,’’ BBC, 23 August 10.
104 Many of the estimates that fall in the 50–70 million range appear to stem from numbers published by the Pew Research Center. See, e.g., Brian Grim, Pew Research Center, ‘‘Religion in China on the Eve of the 2008 Beijing Olympics,’’ 7 May 08; Michael Gerson, ‘‘A Founding Document for a New China,’’ Washington Post, 12 May 11; Stephanie Samuel, ‘‘Chinese House Churches Petition for Religious Freedom,’’ Christian Post, 9 May 11. Some other sources appear to have arrived at these numbers independently. See, e.g., Rodney Stark et al., ‘‘Counting China’s
Christians,’’ First Things, 1 May 11; Verna Yu, ‘‘Test of Faith,’’ South China Morning Post, 8 May 11.
105 For example, Yu Jianrong of the Rural Development Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences estimates that there are between 45 and 60 million unregistered Protestants in China. Yu Jianrong, China Institute of Strategy and Management, ‘‘Yu Jianrong: Research on the Legalization of China’s Protestant House Churches’’ [Yu jianrong: zhongguo jidu jiao jiating jiaohui hefahua yanjiu], 2010. Based on information collected among Christians in China, a 2010 study by Asia Harvest—an inter-denominational Christian ministry that works in various countries throughout Asia—estimates that there are approximately 103 million Christians in China, although this figure likely includes both Protestants and Catholics. [See Catholicism in this section for more information on the size of China’s Catholic community.] Paul Hattaway and Joy Hattaway, Asia Harvest, ‘‘Answering the Question: How Many Christians Are in China Today? ’’ Asia Harvest Newsletter, No. 106, October 2010. The South China Morning Post estimates that the number of unregistered Protestants could be as high as 120 million. Nicola Davidson, ‘‘Suspension of Disbelief,’’ South China Morning Post, 7 November 10.
106 PRC Constitution, adopted 4 December 82, amended 12 April 88, 29 March 93, 15 March 99, 14 March 04, art. 36.
107 The term in Chinese is shenxue sixiang jianshe. See, e.g., Du Qinglin, ‘‘Du Qinglin: Remarks at the Chinese Protestant Three-Self Patriotic Movement’s 60th Anniversary Celebration’’ [Du qinglin: zai zhongguo jidu jiao sanzi aiguo yundong 60 zhounian qingzhu dahui shang de jiang hua], China Religion, 8 November 10; State Administration for Religious Affairs, ‘‘Vice Director Jiang Jianyong Attends Amity Foundation’s 25th Anniversary and Speaks at the Ceremony To Celebrate the Printing of 80 Million Bibles’’ [Jiang jiangyong fu juzhang chuxi aide jijinhui chengli ershiwu zhounian qingdian bing zai yinshua shengjing baqianwan ce qingdian yishi shang zhici], 10 November 10; Yang Xuelian, China Christian Council and Three-Self Patriotic
Movement, ‘‘Hebei Provincial China Christian Council and Three-Self Patriotic Movement Hold ‘Harmonious Outlook’ Theological Reconstruction Conference’’ [Hebei sheng jidu jiao liang hui juban ‘‘hexie guan’’ shenxue sixiang jianshe yantaohui], 9 December 10; Qingdao Municipal Three-Self Patriotic Movement and Qingdao Municipal China Christian Council, ‘‘Qingdao Municipal Christian Council and Three-Self Patriotic Movement Hold Theological Reconstruction Conference’’ [Qingdao shi jidu jiao liang hui juxing shenxue sixiang jianshe yantaohui], reprinted in China Christian Council and Three-Self Patriotic Movement, 15 December 10. For more information on theological reconstruction, see CECC, 2009 Annual Report, 10 October 09, 132–35; ‘‘Official Protestant Church Politicizes Pastoral Training, ‘Reconstructs’ Theology,’’ CECC China Human Rights and Rule of Law Update, No. 3, 16 March 10, 2.
108 The charters of the TSPM and CCC list among each organization’s duties: ‘‘Under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the People’s Government, to unite all the country’s Protestants; to fervently love socialism and the motherland; to respect the country’s Constitution, laws, regulations, and policies; [and] to proactively participate in the construction of a socialist society with Chinese characteristics.’’ Three-Self Patriotic Movement, Charter of the National Committee of Three-Self Patriotic Movement of the Protestant Churches in China [Zhongguo jidu jiao sanzi aiguo yundong weiyuanhui zhangcheng], passed 12 January 08, art. 6(1); China Christian Council, Charter of the China Christian Council [Zhongguo jidu jiao xiehui
zhangcheng], passed 12 January 08, art. 7(1).
109 Nicola Davison, ‘‘Suspension of Disbelief,’’ South China Morning Post, 7 November 10.
110 See, e.g., State Administration for Religious Affairs, ‘‘Vice Director Jiang Jianyong Attends Amity Foundation’s 25th Anniversary and Speaks at the Ceremony To Celebrate the Printing of 80 Million Bibles’’ [Jiang jianyong fu juzhang chuxi aide jijinhui chengli ershiwu zhounian qingdian bing zai yinshua shengjing baqianwan ce qingdian yishi shang zhici], 10 November 10.
111 See, e.g., Du Qinglin, ‘‘Du Qinglin: Remarks at the Chinese Protestant Three-Self Patriotic Movement’s 60th Anniversary Celebration’’ [Du qinglin: zai zhongguo jidu jiao sanzi aiguo yundong 60 zhounian qingzhu dahui shang de jiang hua], China Religion, 8 November 10. The phrase that Du used is ‘‘jidu jiao jin yi bu yu shehuizhuyi shehui xiang shiying.’’
112 State Administration for Religious Affairs, ‘‘Main Points of State Administration for Religious Affairs’ 2011 Work’’ [Guojia zongjiao shiwu ju 2011 nian gongzuo yaodian], 24 January 11. A 2010 article in China Religion, an official SARA publication, that summarizes the content of a meeting to discuss SARA’s work in 2010 did not mention this policy, although a January 24, 2011, SARA report states that authorities did make efforts to ‘‘guide’’ unregistered Protestants to worship in state-controlled churches in 2010. ‘‘Meeting on National Religious Work Held in Beijing’’ [Quanguo zongjiao gongzuo huiyi zai jing juxing], China Religion, Issue 1, No. 122, 2010; State Administration for Religious Affairs, ‘‘Report on the Situation of the State Administration
for Religious Affairs’ 2010 Work’’ [Guojia zongjiao shiwu ju 2010 nian gongzuo  qingkuang baogao], 24 January 11.
113 ‘‘House Churches Cannot Politicize Religion,’’ Global Times, 11 April 11; ‘‘Editorial: Individual Churches Should Avoid Letting Themselves [Become] Politicized’’ [Sheping: gebie jiaohui yao bimian rang ziji zhengzhihua], Global Times, 26 April 11.
114 ‘‘English Edition of Global Times Launched,’’ China Daily, 20 April 09.
115 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by UN General Assembly resolution 217A (III) of 10 December 48, arts. 18, 20.
116 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted by UN General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 66, entry into force 23 March 76, arts. 18, 21.
117 See the RRA generally for provisions defining the scope of state control over various internal affairs of religious groups. For detailed analysis of specific articles, see, e.g., ‘‘Zhejiang and Other Provincial Governments Issue New Religious Regulations,’’ CECC China Human Rights and Rule of Law Update, June 2006, 9–10.
118 For other examples, see ‘‘Beijing Police Oppress Congregation, Targeted at He Depu’’ [Zhendui he depu beijing jingfang daya jiaoyou juhui], Radio Free Asia, 31 January 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘Anhui and Shandong Oppress House Church and Three-Self Patriotic Movement Church’’ [Anhui shandong shengdan qijian bipo jiating jiaohui he sanzi jiaohui], 29 December 10; ChinaAid, ‘‘Beijing Church Blocked by Police, Christians Taken Away’’ [Beijing yi jiaohui bei jingcha zuzhi jidu tu bei daizou], 30 January 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘More Reports of Christmas Persecutions of House Church Christians,’’ 30 December 10; ChinaAid, ‘‘Police Detain Two House Church Pastors; Pastor Bike and Wife Under Informal House Arrest,’’ 23 April 11; ‘‘Jiangsu Pastor
Placed Under Soft Detention, Money Stolen, Beaten; Head of House Church Forced To Travel’’ [Jiangsu mushi zao ruanjin qiang qian ji ouda, jiating jiaohui huizhang bei qiangzhi luyou], 10 March 11; ‘‘Yancheng Church, Jiangsu, Attacked While Worshiping, Officials Close Off Church’’ [Jiangsu yancheng jiaohui chongbai zao chongji, guanfang fengsuo jiaotang], Radio Free Asia, 1 February 11; ‘‘Government Interferes With Activities of House Church Networks in Late 2010 and 2011,’’ Congressional-Executive Commission on China, 1 July 11.
119 See, e.g., ‘‘Persecution Mounts Against the Church of Shouwang,’’ AsiaNews, 16 May 11; ‘‘Beijing Police Disperse House Church Easter Gathering’’ [Beijing jingfang qusan shouwang jiaohui fuhuojie juhui], BBC, 24 April 11; Alexa Olesen, ‘‘Beijing Police Halt Unapproved Church Service,’’ Associated Press, reprinted in Yahoo!, 10 April 11; Beijing Shouwang Church, ‘‘Announcement of Beijing Shouwang Church Regarding the May 29 Outdoor Worship Service,’’ reprinted in ChinaAid, 1 June 11; Beijing Shouwang Church, ‘‘Beijing Shouwang Church Announcement on May 15th Outdoor Worship Service,’’ reprinted in ChinaAid, 18 May 11; Beijing Shouwang Church, ‘‘Beijing Shouwang Church May 22 Outdoor Worship Bulletin’’ [Beijing
shouwang jiaohui 5 yue 22 ri huwai jingbai tongbao], reprinted in ChinaAid, 24 May 11; Beijing Shouwang Church, ‘‘Beijing Shouwang Church May 29 Outdoor Worship Bulletin’’ [Beijing shouwang jiaohui 5 yue 29 ri huwai jingbai tongbao], reprinted in ChinaAid, 30 May 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘500 Shouwang Church Christians Under House Arrest in Beijing on Easter Sunday, More Than 30 in Police Custody,’’ 24 April 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘At Least 31 Members of Shouwang Church Taken Away This Morning’’ [Jintian zaochen zhishao 31 ming shouwang jiaohui chengyuan bei zhuazou], 1 May 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘Beijing Police Release Nearly All Shouwang Church Detainees, Pastor and Two Others Still in Custody,’’ 11 April 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘Latest Update—3: Beijing Shouwang Church May 8, 2011, Outdoor Worship Gathering Continues To Suffer
Oppression’’ [Zuixin dongtai—3: beijing shouwang jiaohui 2011 nian 5 yue 8 ri de huwai
juhui jixu zaoshou bipo], 10 May 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘Persecution of Shouwang Church Members Continues for Fifth Sunday,’’ 8 May 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘Week 6: Police Detain 20 Shouwang Church Members, Put 100 Under House Arrest,’’ 15 May 11; ‘‘China Detains Protestant Shouwang Devotees,’’ BBC, 24 April 11; Alexa Olesen, ‘‘Underground Beijing Church Members Detained,’’ Associated Press, reprinted in Yahoo!, 17 April 11; ‘‘Fears of New Crackdown as 160 Christians
Held,’’ South China Morning Post, 11 April 11; Jo Ling Kent, ‘‘Church Officials: Chinese Authorities Block Easter Service in Beijing,’’ CNN, 24 April 11; Li Ya, ‘‘Under Pressure, Beijing Shouwang Church Faces a Crisis’’ [Zhong ya zhi xia, beijing shouwang jiaohui mianlin xin weiji], Voice of America, 6 June 11; Louisa Lim, ‘‘China Cracks Down on Christians at Outdoor Service,’’ National Public Radio, 11 April 11; Nicola Davidson, ‘‘Chinese Christianity Will Not Be Crushed,’’ Guardian, 24 May 11; P. Simpson, ‘‘Several Hundred Chinese Protestants Under Home Confinement on Easter, 40 People Detained’’ [Shu bai zhongguo jidu tu fuhuojie zao ruanjin 40 ren bei ju], Voice of America, 24 April 11; Verna Yu, ‘‘Four Leaders Go in Church Split,’’ South China Morning Post, 6 June 11; Verna Yu, ‘‘Police Round Up 27 Christians,’’ South China Morning Post, 23 May 11; Verna Yu, ‘‘Police Round Up Pastors, Christians for a Second Time,’’ South China Morning Post, 18 April 11; Yan Yan, ‘‘Beijing Police Take Away Over 100 Underground Church Believers’’ [Beijing jingfang daizou 100 duo ming dixia jiaohui xintu], Deutsche Welle, 11 April 11; Wang Zhicheng, ‘‘More Arrests, More Persecution for Shouwang Underground Christians,’’ AsiaNews, 9 May 11; Zhang Nan, ‘‘Beijing Shouwang Church Members Detained Again’’ [Beijing shouwang jiaohui chengyuan zai zao kouya], Voice of America, 1 May 11; ‘‘Beijing Authorities Harass, Detain, and Restrict the Freedom of Movement of
Shouwang Church Members,’’ Congressional-Executive Commission on China, 1 July 11.
120 Chris Buckley and Sui-Lee Wee, ‘‘Beijing Church Faces Eviction in Tense Times,’’ Reuters, 3 April 11.
121 Beijing Shouwang Church, ‘‘An Explanation of the Issue of Worshiping Outside’’ [Huwai jingbai wenti jieda], 4 April 11; Beijing Shouwang Church, ‘‘Beijing Shouwang Church March 2011 Open Letter to Congregation’’ [Beijing shouwang jiaohui 11 nian 3 yue gao huizhong shu], 27 March 11; Chris Buckley and Sui-Lee Wee, ‘‘Beijing Church Faces Eviction in Tense Times,’’ Reuters, 3 April 11; Verna Yu, ‘‘Fears of More Pressure on Underground Churches,’’ South China Morning Post, 1 April 11.
122 ‘‘Beijing Police Halt Unapproved Church Service,’’ Associated Press, reprinted in Yahoo!, 10 April 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘Beijing Police Release Nearly All Shouwang Church Detainees, Pastor and Two Others Still in Custody,’’ 11 April 11; ‘‘Fears of New Crackdown as 160 Christians Held,’’ South China Morning Post, 11 April 11; Louisa Lim, ‘‘China Cracks Down on Christians at Outdoor Service,’’ National Public Radio, 11 April 11; Yan Yan, ‘‘Beijing Police Take Away Over 100 Underground Church Believers’’ [Beijing jingfang daizou 100 duo ming dixia jiaohui xintu], Deutsche Welle, 11 April 11.
123 ‘‘36 Detained at Shouwang Church Outdoor Worship’’ [Shouwang jiaohui huwai jingbai 36 ren bei bu], Radio Free Asia, 25 April 11; Brian Spegele, ‘‘Beijing Police Detain Group of Christians,’’ Wall Street Journal, 25 April 11; Jo Ling Kent, ‘‘Church Officials: Chinese Authorities Block Easter Service in Beijing,’’ CNN, 24 April 11; Michael Foust, ‘‘4th Week: China Arrests 30 Church Members,’’ Baptist Press, 2 May 11; U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, ‘‘Easter Detentions Show Need for Religious Freedom Priority in U.S.-China Relations,’’ 27 April 11.
124 Alexa Olesen, ‘‘Beijing Police Halt Unapproved Church Service,’’ Associated Press, reprinted in Yahoo!, 10 April 11; Beijing Shouwang Church, ‘‘Beijing Shouwang Church April 24 Easter Outdoor Worship Bulletin’’ [Beijing shouwang jiaohui 4 yue 24 ri fuhuo jie huwai jingbai tongbao], 25 April 11; Liu Jianghe, ‘‘Pastor Li Xiaobai of the Beijing Shouwang Church and His Wife Released, Still No Place To Go for Worship’’ [Shouwang jiaohui li xiaobai mushi shifang, jingbai changsuo yiran wu zhuoluo], China Free Press, 13 April 11.
125 Beijing Shouwang Church, ‘‘Beijing Pastors’ Joint Prayer Meeting Prays for Beijing Shouwang Church (4)’’ [Beijing jiaomu liandao hui wei beijing shouwang jiao hui daidao (4)], reprinted in ChinaAid, 29 April 11.
126 ‘‘49 Detained in Raid on China Underground Church,’’ Associated Press, reprinted in Yahoo!, 11 May 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘During the China-U.S. Strategic and Economic Dialogue, Chinese House Church Alliance Bible Study Attacked, 49 Detained’’ [Zhongmei jingji zhanlue duihua qijian, zhonguo jiating jiaohui lianhe hui de shengjing peixun zao chongji, 49 bei zhuabu], 11 May 11; ‘‘Korean Bible Instructor Held Following Raid on Underground Chinese Church Gathering,’’ Associated Press, reprinted in Washington Post, 11 May 11; ‘‘Multiple Members of Underground Church in Henan Detained at Once’’ [Henan duo ming dixia jiaohui chengyuan yidu bei jubu], Deutsche Welle, 11 May 11; ‘‘Zhengzhou Public Security Attacks Church, Detains 49, Three Korean Pastors and Two People Pursued and Detained’’ [Zhengzhou gong’an chongji jiaohui ju 49 ren, hanguo san mushi liang ren zao zhuyi juliu], Radio Free Asia,
11 May 11.
127 ChinaAid, ‘‘Police Detain Two House Church Pastors; Pastor Bike and Wife Under Informal House Arrest,’’ 23 April 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘Police Surround a Shandong House Church, Detain Seven,’’ 17 April 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘Zaozhuang, Shandong House Church Leader Taken Into Custody’’ [Shandong zaozhuang jiating jiaohui lingxiu bei zhua], 16 April 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘Zaozhuang, Shandong Province, House Church Oppressed (Update), Cangshan County Also Detaining Believers’’ [Shandong sheng zaozhuang jiating jiaohui zaoshou bipo (gengxin), cangshan xian ye zai zhua xintu], 17 April 11; ‘‘Seven Followers in Shandong, Even Car, Are Detained, Shaanxi Police Block Medical Treatment for Pastor After Beating Him’’ [Shandong jiaotu qi ren lian che
zao kouya, shaan jing da mushi hou geng zu jiuzhi], Radio Free Asia, 21 April 11.
128 ‘‘49 Detained in Raid on China Underground Church,’’ Associated Press, reprinted in Yahoo!, 11 May 11; ChinaAid, ‘‘During the China-U.S. Strategic and Economic Dialogue, Chinese House Church Alliance Bible Study Attacked, 49 Detained’’ [Zhongmei jingji zhanlue duihua qijian, zhonguo jiating jiaohui lianhe hui de shengjing peixun zao chongji, 49 bei zhuabu], 11 May 11; ‘‘Korean Bible Instructor Held Following Raid on Underground Chinese Church Gathering,’’ Associated Press, reprinted in Washington Post, 11 May 11; ‘‘Multiple Members of Underground Church in Henan Detained at Once’’ [Henan duo ming dixia jiaohui chengyuan yidu bei jubu], Deutsche Welle, 11 May 11; ‘‘Zhengzhou Public Security Attacks Church, Detains 49, Three Korean Pastors and Two People Pursued and Detained’’ [Zhengzhou gong’an chongji jiaohui ju 49 ren, hanguo san jiaoshi liang ren zao zhuyi juliu], Radio Free Asia,
11 May 11.
129 ChinaAid, ‘‘Update: 49 House Church Leaders Released,’’ 11 May 11.
130 ChinaAid, ‘‘All Believers Detained in the May 10 Zhengzhou Church Incident and May 22 Hubei Oppression Incident Released’’ [5–10 zhengzhou jiao an he 5–22 hubei bipo an bei guanya xintu quanbu huoshi], 26 May 11.
131 ChinaAid, ‘‘Police Detain Two House Church Pastors; Pastor Bike and Wife Under Informal House Arrest,’’ 23 April 11; ‘‘Jiangsu Pastor Placed Under Home Confinement, Money Stolen, Beaten; Head of House Church Forced To Travel’’ [Jiangsu mushi zao ruanjin qiang qian ji ouda, jiating jiaohui huizhang bei qiangzhi luyou], Radio Free Asia, 10 March 11.
132 ChinaAid, ‘‘Christians Persecuted in Henan and Jiangsu,’’ 7 March 11; ‘‘Jiangsu Pastor Placed Under Home Confinement, Money Stolen, Beaten; Head of House Church Forced To Travel’’ [Jiangsu mushi zao ruanjin qiang qian ji ouda, jiating jiaohui huizhang bei qiangzhi luyou], Radio Free Asia, 10 March 11.
133 ChinaAid, ‘‘Persecution of House Churches Continues, Pastor Shi Enhao Criminally Detained’’ [Bipo jiating jiaohui jixu jinxing, shi enhao mushi zao xingshi juliu], 5 July 11. ‘‘Using superstition to undermine the implementation of the law’’ is similar to the language of Article 300 of the PRC Criminal Law. Article 300 also contains language about ‘‘using a cult to undermine the implementation of the law,’’ a charge commonly used against Falun Gong practitioners. PRC Criminal Law [Zhonghua renmin gongheguo xingfa], enacted 1 July 79, amended 14 March
97, effective 1 October 97, amended 25 December 99, 31 August 01, 29 December 01, 28 December 02, 28 February 05, 29 June 06, 28 February 09, 25 February 11, art. 300.
134 ‘‘Pastor Sent to Labor Camp,’’ Radio Free Asia, 26 July 11.
135 ChinaAid, ‘‘ChinaAid Pays Attention to the Chinese Representatives to the Lausanne Congress Being Oppressed’’ [Duihua yuanzhu xiehui guanzhu luosang huiyi zhongguo jiaohui daibiao shoudao daya], 11 October 10; ‘‘Underground Churches Banned From Attending Overseas Gospel Conference, Authorities Allege Conference Is Anti-China, Five Taken Into Custody at Beijing Airport’’ [Dixia jiaohui jin fu haiwai fuyin hui, dangju zhi dahui she fanhua, beijing jichang kou 5 ren], Ming Pao, 11 October 10. For more information, see also ‘‘Chinese Authorities Prevent Protestants From Attending International Evangelization Conference,’’ CECC China Human Rights and Rule of Law Update, No. 9, 10 December 10, 2.
136 State Administration for Religious Affairs, ‘‘Main Points of State Administration for Religious Affairs’ 2011 Work’’ [Guojia zongjiao shiwu ju 2011 nian gongzuo yaodian], 24 January 11.
137 Louisa Lim, ‘‘Beijing Blocks Travelers to Christian Conference,’’ National Public Radio, 14 October 10.
138 ‘‘Chinese Authorities Prohibit Many Human Rights Defenders From Leaving Country’’ [Duo ming weiquan gongmin bei zhongguo dangju jinzhi chujing], Radio Free Asia, 3 August 10; ‘‘Travel Bans for Activists,’’ Radio Free Asia, 5 August 10.
139 Fan is also a former researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS). In November 2009, the Party secretary at CASS reportedly told Fan he would not be permitted to continue working at CASS after Fan attempted to provide legal aid to the Linfen-Fushan Church. See, e.g., ChinaAid, ‘‘Prominent Chinese Legal Researcher Abruptly Dismissed for ‘Political Reasons,’ ’’ 3 November 09; CECC, 2010 Annual Report, 10 October 10, 109–110.
140 ChinaAid, ‘‘Beijing Police Zero In on Holy Mountain Institute,’’ 15 December 10; ‘‘Chinese Authorities’ Suppression of Civil Rights Activists Continues To Increase’’ [Zhongguo dangju dui weiquan renshi daya buduan shengji], Radio Free Asia, 12 October 10. Fan reportedly has played an important role in promoting legal activism among members of house church congregations throughout China. See, e.g., ChinaAid, ‘‘2010 Annual Report,’’ 31 March 11, 3.
141 ‘‘Chinese Authorities’ Suppression of Civil Rights Activists Continues To Increase’’
[Zhongguo dangju dui weiquan renshi daya buduan shengji], Radio Free Asia, 12 October 10.
142 ‘‘Fan Yafeng, a Christian, Is Arrested, He Signed Charter 08,’’ AsiaNews, 26 November 10; ChinaAid, ‘‘Detained Human Rights Lawyer Fan Yafeng Returns Home! ’’ 18 December 10; Verna Yu, ‘‘Police Take Christian Leader, Family From Home,’’ South China Morning Post, 26 November 11.
143 ChinaAid, ‘‘Decision of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region High People’s Court: Rejects Christian Alimjan’s Request for Reconsideration’’ [Xinjiang weiwuer zizhi qu gaoji renmin fayuan de caiding shu: bohui jidu tu alimujiang de shensu], 3 March 11.
144 ChinaAid, ‘‘Seminar on Alimujiang’s Case and Governance of the Law on Guarding State Secrets,’’ 18 November 10.
145 Ibid.
146 Andrew Jacobs, ‘‘Chinese Christians Rally Around Underground Church,’’ New York Times, 12 May 11.
147 Xie Moshan and Li Tianen, ‘‘We Are [Doing This] for Faith: A Citizen Petition Letter to the National People’s Congress With Respect to the Political Conflict’’ [Women shi weile xinyang: wei zhengzhi chongtu zhi quanguo renda de gongmin qingyuan shu], reprinted in ChinaAid, 12 May 11.
148 Ibid.
149 ChinaAid, ‘‘More Reports of Christmas Persecutions of House Church Christians,’’ 30 December 10.
150 ChinaAid, ‘‘Even Government Churches Face Official Persecution: Local Authorities Demolish TSPM Church,’’ 22 November 10.
151 ChinaAid, ‘‘Registered Church in Jiangsu Province Demolished, Christians Beaten,’’ 22 December 08. For more information, see ‘‘State-Sanctioned Church in Jiangsu Province Demolished,’’ Congressional-Executive Commission on China, 20 January 11.


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"Bob Fu has dedicated his life to bringing freedom of religion to the Chinese people. His story is a testimony to the power of faith and an inspiration to people struggling to break free from oppression."
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